Image of the Month

Damavand, the highest Asian inactive volcano in the Alborz mountains, around 66 km in the northeastern Tehran, Iran (the highest elevation is 5,671 m) (Photo by M. H. Azizi MD, Winter 2015).

A winter view of Abali, around 57 km in the northeastern Tehran, Iran (Photo by M. H. Azizi MD, 2015).


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The collection of articles appearing in the current book consists of manuscripts on the history of medicine in Iran, initially published from 1998 to 2014 in the “Archives of Iranian Medicine” (AIM). These articles are categorized into four separate parts, based on their subjects: Part 1) Ancient Times, Medieval Period, Part 2) Contemporary Medicine, Part 3) Outstanding Physicians and Part 4) Historical Background of Fatal Diseases in Iran. These 73 manuscripts have now been compiled in a 446 pages book for those who are interested in the history of Iranian medicine.more

Since the Archive of Iranian Medicine (AIM) journal presents as Open Access monthly, online periodical from May 2013, thus dear readers may refer to the journal website (www.aimjournal.ir) for free downloading of the published papers.

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A Monthly Peer-Reviewed Medical Journal Published by the Academy of Medical Sciences of the I.R. Iran; Indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, SCOPUS, CINHAL, PASCAL, CSA, SID, ISSN: Print 1029-2977, Online 1735-3947.The impact factor of Archives of Iranian Medicine according to Journal Citation Reports®(JCR®) 2012 is 1.222.

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Selected Article
Hypoglycemia: Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes in Non-Critically Ill People with Type 2 Diabetes 1

 Authors’ affiliation: 1Endocrine Research Center, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

·Corresponding author: Mohammad Ebrahim Khamseh MD, Firouzgar Alley, Valadi St., Behafarin St., Karimkhan Ave., Vali-asr Sq., Tehran, Iran. Tel: +98-21-88945172, Fax: +98-21-88945173, E-mail: khamseh.m@iums.ac.ir

Accepted for publication: 25 November 2015

Cite this article as:  Akhavan P, Aghili R, Malek M, Ebrahim Valojerdi A, Khamseh ME. Hypoglycemia: Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes in Non-Critically Ill People with Type 2 Diabetes.  Arch Iran Med. 2016; 19(2):

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Authors: Parisa Akhavan1, Rokhsareh Aghili2, Mojtaba Malek3, Ameneh Ebrahim Valojerdi4, *Mohammad Ebrahim Khamseh5,
 
Keywords: Cardiovascular event, hypoglycemia, insulin, Type 2 diabetes

BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is associated with adverse health outcomes and can result in vascular events in diabetic patients. The impact of hypoglycemia on cardiovascular outcomes in non-critically ill people with diabetes is not well-determined. So, we examined short-term cardiovascular outcomes of hypoglycemic events in people with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin during routine clinical care. 

METHODS: This study was conducted in Tehran, Iran from January 2012 to January 2013. One hundred and twenty non-critically ill people with type 2 diabetes on oral glucose lowering drugs were enrolled. Insulin therapy was initiated for uncontrolled diabetes. The patients were educated to perform self-monitoring of blood glucose on a daily basis. Furthermore, they were asked to record the results if they experienced any symptom indicative of hypoglycemia during the 24 weeks of the study. The occurrence of any major cardiovascular event including unstable angina, fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal and non-fatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular cause was also evaluated based on the patients’ hospital records.
RESULTS: There were 210 hypoglycemic episodes and 31 major cardiovascular events. Forty four percent of patients with documented hypoglycemic episodes developed cardiovascular events compared to 15.6% of those who did not experience any hypoglycemia (P = 0.001). The odds ratio for occurrence of major cardiovascular events related to hypoglycemia was 7.41 (CI = 2.15–25.47) with a risk ratio of 2.66. 
CONCLUSION: Hypoglycemia is a major risk factor for occurrence of the first major cardiovascular event in non-critically ill people with type 2 diabetes initiating insulin therapy.
 
ISSN:1029-2977       Article type:Original
  
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