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Arch Iran Med. 2019;22(7):355-360.
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Original Article

A Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer in Northeast of Iran: The Golestan Cohort Study

Sadaf Alipour 1,2, Ramesh Omranipour 1,3, Reza Malekzadeh 4,5, Hossein Poustchi 6, Akram Pourshams 4, Masoud Khoshnia 4,7, Abdolsamad Gharavi 4,7, Gholamreza Roshandel 5,7, Bita Eslami 1 * ORCID logo

1 Breast Disease Research Center (BDRC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Surgery, Arash Women’s Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Surgical Oncology, Cancer Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Digestive Disease Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
6 Liver and Pancreatobiliary Disease Research Center, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
7 Golestan Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Bita Eslami, PhD; Breast Disease Research Center (BDRC), 2nd Floor, Sadaf Building, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Keshavarz Blvd., Tehran, Iran. Tel: +982161192761; Email: Email: b-eslami@alumnus.tums.ac.ir

Abstract

Background: The incidence and survival of breast cancer (BC) vary across countries. This study aimed to determine risk factors for BC and estimate the overall survival rate in BC patients of the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS).

Methods: This case-control study was performed among participants of the GCS. Cases (N = 99) consisted of women who were diagnosed with BC and controls (n = 400) were selected out of women participating in the same cohort and had not developed any cancer during the follow-up period. Controls were frequency matched to case on both place of residency and 5-year categories of age.

Results: Considering confounding variables, logistic regression analysis manifested a reverse association between parity and BC (OR [odds ratio] = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.80–0.95, P = 0.001). In addition, we found women who had family history of any cancer (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.02–2.60, P = 0.04) and long term oral contraceptive (OCP) use (≥10 years) (OR = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.27–7.95, P = 0.01) were at higher risk of BC. Of the total patients, 23 (23.2%) were died due to BC after a mean follow-up of 102.4 ± 5.31 months. Using the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the 5-year survival in these patients was 74%.

Conclusion: In the Golestan Cohort population, long term OCP use and family history of cancer were risk factors for BC, while parity was a protective factor. The 5-year survival of BC patients in the GCS is still lower relative to Europe and the United States.

Keywords: Breast cancer, Cohort study, Risk Factor, Survival analysis
Cite this article as: Alipour S, Omranipour R, Malekzadeh R, Poustchi H, Pourshams A, Khoshnia M, et al. A case-control study of breast cancer in northeast of Iran: the Golestan cohort study. Arch Iran Med. 2019;22(7):355–360.
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Submitted: 04 Mar 2019
Accepted: 15 May 2019
First published online: 01 Jul 2019
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